Function and meaning
Kraters were used for mixage wine with ciotola at a symposium (per drinking party for upper class men). Since ancient Greeks only drank wine diluted with chicchera, kraters were crucial esatto the symposium, and were batteria up per the middle of the room where partygoers drank. The interior of the Francois Vase has scratches which may have been made by verso utensil missaggio the wine, but it is unclear whether the vase was used at symposia durante Greece, sopra Etruria (Italy), or con both places. It may have been used at lavish parties durante Athens, or in verso funerary banquet honoring the deceased in Etruria before it was buried as per molesto offering.
Wealthy, educated individuals attending banquets durante either place would have recognized the scenes shown on the vase, and might have used them as conciliabule starters. Other vessels used at symposia durante the Archaic period were also commonly painted with mythological scenes and could have served a similar purpose, but the sheer number of scenes on the Francois Vase may have made it particularly intriguing sicuro the banqueters who used it. They may have even understood the images preciso be relevant to their own lives. While the pictures had different meanings for different viewers, the scenes of drinking on the Francois Vase mirror the circumstances durante which it was actually used. Moreover, many of the scenes on the vessel represent ideal aristocratic activities that the drinkers likely participated per, including noble marriage, successful hunts, and military commandement.
Most Greek men spent some of their lives serving their cities at war, defeating enemies much like the heroes painted on this vase. Like Peleus, Greek men were expected puro marry and raise their children esatto be productive citizens. It seems that Kleitias and Ergotimos purposefully designed the decoration to appeal esatto the prosperous owners of the vase, who could recognize and relate puro the stories it told.
On September 9, 1900 verso museum guard, mediante a fit of rage, threw verso chair at the case containing the Francois Vase, shattering it into 638 pieces. The museum director, Luigi Milani asked Pietro Zei onesto undertake the conservation of the Francois Vase. Conservation took two years.
Jasper Gaunt, Ergotimos Epoiesen: The Potter’s Contribution to the Francois Vase,” mediante The Francois Vase: New Perspectives, anche. H. Alan Shapiro, Mario Iozzo, and Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter (Zurich: Akanthus, 2013), p. 81
Mario Iozzo, “The Francois Vase: Notes on Technical Aspects and Functions,” con The Francois Vase: New Perspectives, anche. H. Alan Shapiro, Mario Iozzo, and Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter, (Zurich: Akanthus, 2013), p. 61
Cornelia Isler-Kerenyi, “Der Francois-Krater zwischen Athen und Chiusi,” mediante Athenian Potters and Painters: The Conference Proceedings, di nuovo. John H. Oakley, William D. Di nuovo. Coulson, and Olga Palagia, (Oxford: Oxbow, 1997), p. 523–539
Guy Hedreen, “Bild, Mythos, and Ritual: Choral Dance sopra Theseus’s Cretan Adventure on the Francois Vase,” Hesperia, vol. 80, no. 3 (2011), p. 491–510.
Cornelia Isler-Kerenyi https://www.datingranking.net/it/latinomeetup-review, “Der Francois-Krater zwischen Athen und Chiusi,” sopra Athenian Potters and Painters: The Conference Proceedings, anche. John H. Oakley, William D. E. Coulson, and Olga Palagia, (Oxford: Oxbow, 1997), p. 523–539.
Detail with wedding procession with Hera and her husband Zeus in verso chariot (left), Urania the muse of astronomy, and Kaliope, muse of epic poetry (center)
Sopra adjonction preciso these narrative scenes, another register at the bottom of the vase shows animals fighting. These images may relate preciso the ferocity of the heroes shown on the vase, who are described metaphorically as predatory animals by Homer. Per comic scene of pygmies (per tribe of small people mediante Greek mythology) battling cranes decorates the foot of the vase, providing per light counterpoint esatto the rest of the imagery. The paint on the foot is reddish durante color instead of black because the vase was misfired durante the kiln, as sometimes happened in ancient Greek ceramic production.